Mindful Continuing Education

Preventing Violence: Trends, Factors, and Interventions-Part 1

Executive Summary

1. Although rates of violence have declined substantially in the United States across all types of violence, rates of violence and the numbers of children and youth affected by violence remain high compared with other countries.

A. True B. False

2. Each of the following is an accurate statement about violence at the individual family and school level EXCEPT:

A. For individuals, problems with self-regulation, sleep, hostile attributions about other people's intentions, and abuse of substanes are risk factors B. While mental health problems are not generally a cause of violence, the combination of substance use and mental health issues does elevate the risk of violence, and individuals with mental health issues and disabilities are more likely to be perpetraors and potential victims of violence C. Family factors represent an important determinant of violence, and interventions include the prevention of unintended pregnancy, programs to prevent and treat intimate partner violence, and parenting education D. Schools are important locus for intervention, and efforts to improve school climate include a focus on improving engagement, safety, and environment by developing social and emotional skills, reduction of bullying and other physical and emotional safety issues, and creating consistent and fair disciplinary policies

Exploring and Role of Culture and Social Factors

3. The antecedents of violence include well-documented disparities, particularly level of transiency, economic opportunities school and employment connectedness, and peer relationships.

A. True B. False

Introduction-Variations in U.S. Violence by Regions and Subgroups

4. Almost everywhere, youth homicide rates are substantially lower among females than among males, suggesting that being a male is strong demographic risk factor, and as with fatal youth violence, the majority of victims of nonfatal violence treated in hospitals are males age 20-26

A. True B. False

Figure 2- Risk and Protective Factors by System and Age

5. While healthy relationships and positive parenting appear to be the greatest family protective factors during young adulthood, prominent risk factors tend to be:

A. Intimate partner violence and economic stress B. Negative parent-child relationships C. Mental illness and substance abuse D. Domestic violence and poor modeling

6. Several of the predictors of violence affect many or even most of the types violence, and child maltreatment, domestic violence, and interpersonal violence predict every single type of violence.

A. Tue B. False

Interventions

7. While mental illness confers only a small amount of additional risk for violence perpetration, research suggests that emotion dysregulation, especially self-destructive behavior, increases the risk of aggression.

A. True B. False

Sleep-Mechanisms

8. When examining sleep and aggression on violent behavior in children and adolescents, researchers have found:

A. Inadequate sleep may impact the functioning of the parts of the brain that are involved in problem-solving and inhibition, although few studies have confirmed that link B. A longitudinal study examining the relationship between childhood sleep problems and behavioral inhibition in adolescence found that adolescents with sleeping problems as children had significantly more difficulty competing a commonly-used activity employed to test children's response inhibition C. Adolescents who had sleeping problems as children were also more likely to use drugs and alcohol, a relationship that was partially mediated by poor inhibition D. All of the above

9. Which of the following is NOT one of the potential pathways by which alcohol has been posited to influence violent behavior according to the authors?

A. Youth who engage in problem drinking may be more likely to associate with an anti-social peer group B. Alcohol intoxication may serve as a proximal risk through impairing impulse control and decision-making C. Excessive alcohol use in young people may be accompanied by abuse of controlled substances, and withdrawal from these substances may increase agitation and unpredictability and contribute to violent behavior D. Genetics and early life stressors likely mediate the role between alcohol and violence

Disability

10. Research indicates that having a disability is a significant predictor of sexual victimization for girls, but not for boys, and it suggests that more than one-third of girls with disability have experienced contact sexual victimization.

A. True B. False

Self-Regulation

11. Self-regulation refers to an individual's ability to regulate responses in order to achieve goals and compensate appropriately when original goals are blocked, and it includes managing stress, controlling impulses, motivating oneself, and:

A. Having the ability to alter behavioral and emotional reactivity in social interactions B. Communicating clearly and making intentions known C. Adapting coping styles when necessary D. Being able to "bounce back" from adversity

Risks and Protective Factors

12. Experts found that children develop foundational skills for self-regulation in the first ten years of life, so they must be given opportunities to practice deliberate and purposeful behaviors with adults and capable peers.

A. True B. False

Hostile Attribution Bias

13. Hostile attribution bias refers to the tendency to assign negative intent or motive, such as disrespect or harm, to others' social cures, such as tone of voice, facial expressions, and body language, especially when those cues that are ambiguous.

A. True B. False

Risk Factors

14. Risk factors for hostile attributions include poor emotion understanding, mistrust, justification of aggressive behavior, and peer rejection and traits such as emotion understanding and regulation are key components of:

A. Developmental outcomes B. Interpersonal functioning C. Optimal well-being D. Social information processing

Protective Factors

15. Characteristics that decrease that likelihood of making hostile attributions include advanced theory of mind and emotion understanding, as these skills tend to be particularly helpful for adolescents, and relate to fewer hostile attributions during the teen years.

A. True B. False

Interventions

16. Cognitive behavior therapy may be useful to help children learn how to identify automatic thought processes that lead to a tendency of making hostile attributions.

A. True B. False

17. Persons who experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been found to have poorer developmental outcomes as adolescents, and later in life they experience:

A. Difficulty in sustaining relationships B. Poorer health and socioeconomic outcomes C. Greater risk-taking behaviors D. Lack of problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills

Family-Level Factors Related to Violence-Risk Takers

18. Although research on risk factors for sexual violence perpetration in the United States is somewhat limited, risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration seem to be negative gender based attitudes, childhood sexual abuse, and alcohol and substance use.

A. True B. False

19. Young men report perpetration and victimization of teen dating violence at a far greater rate than young women, and most often report perpetrating physical and emotional abuse.

A. True B. False

Intimate Partner Violence

20. Exhibiting a pattern of power and dominance that includes emotional abuse, isolation, minimizing, denying, blaming, economic abuse, coercion, and threats is known as:

A. Manipulative forceful violence B. Threatening influential violence C. Coercive controlling violence D. Intimidating persuasive violence

Unintended Pregnancy and Violence

21. Pregnancy, whether planned or unplanned increases woman's risk for experiencing IPV, IPV increases a woman's risk for experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy has been identified as a strong, malleable factor for abuse during and after pregnancy.

A. True B. False

Interventions and Promising Practices to Prevent Sexual Assault and Relationship Violence

22. Primary prevention is widely agreed upon as the optimal approach to prevention of violence, and evidence-based and promising interventions to inform adolescents (and adults) about the benefits and characteristics of healthy relationships can help these individuals:

A. Make smarter decisions about partner selection B. Change the way they niew power dynamics and gender equity C. Teach key skills to foster communications and prevent conflict in relationships D. All of the above

Batterer's Intervention Programs

23. Researchers have found that about one-half of men who are arrested for domestic violence will re-assault their partner within six months, a similar percentage who are given a restraining order for domestic violence will re-assault their partner, and employment or marital status does not appear to protect against re-abuse.

A. True B. False

Prevent Unplanned Pregnancy and Repeat Unplanned Pregnancy

24. Maternal education can mediate the effects of unplanned pregnancy and IPV for children, and given that the majority of unplanned pregnancies occur among adolescents, interventions that aim to improve educational attainment for pregnant and parenting teens may have considerable potential reach to influence child well-being.

A. True B. False

25. Each of the following accurately describes efforts to address violence intervention during adolescence EXCEPT:

A. Primary prevention is widely regarded as the most effective and most cost-effective way to achieve lasting results B. Recent well-evaluated culturally tailored interventions have clearly demonstrated how such services can reduce risk factors for teen violence C. There are more types and a greater number of rigorously evaluated programs targeting adolescents than adults, and they span numerous sectors D. Efforts to improve school climate may also help to prevent multiple types of adolescent violence

Parenting

26. Parents who are less sensitive and responsive and who are critical, punitive, and indifferent to children and their behavior foster insecure relationships or attachments, and such insecure relationships are associated with aggression and antisocial behaviors in childhood.

A. True B. False

Family Violence

27. A review of the literature examining the link between witnessing intimate partner violence and antisocial behaviors found that children in these violent homes are likely to display conduct and oppositional defiant disorder, aggressive interactions with peers, and:

A. Future criminal behavior B. General psychopathology C. Intrusiveness and hostility D. Externalizing behaviors

28. Worldwide alternatives to ViolencE (WAVE) , an organization dedicated to preventing violence, contends that violence is a behavior that can be caused and prevented, and that major factors in the development of a propensity toward violence are a lack of empathy and maltreatment before:

A. Age 3 B. Age 5 C. Age 7 D. Age 9

29. Promotion interventions to deter violence are selective, preventive programs targeted to parents whose children are at risk for maltreatment/and or developing aggressive behaviors, conduct disorders, or violent behaviors.

A. True B. False

30. Parenting classes and anger management interventions tend to be very effective for adult trauma survivors because they are often able to hear and share similar stories, and no longer feel so isolated.

A. True B. False


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