Mindful Continuing Education

Classifying and Mediating Attention Problems in Youth

Classifying Attention Problems-The Label

1. People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have underdeveloped frontal lobes in the brain, and this can lead to issues related to planning, impulse control, attention, working memory, and:

A. Perception B. Understanding C. Reasoning D. Making sense of surroundings

2. A thorough diagnosis of ADHD will likely include educational data including test results, rating scales obtained from multiple sources, observation, and a clinical interview.

A. True B. False

3. Students suffering from true internal pathology represent a relatively small segment of the population and are often misdiagnosed, so when problem behaviors exist, experts recommend using resources to change environments whenever possible.

A. True B. False

A Broad View of Human Functioning

4. As behavioral theories have developed over time, human function has been more recently viewed as the product of a reciprocal interplay between person and environment, which is referred to as a:

A. Complementary model B. Transactional model C. Relational model D. Correlative model

Problems Categorized on a Continuum

5. A broad framework for classifying psychopathology and psychosocial problems on a continuum describes Type II problems as those that are caused by a significant mismatch between individual genes, character, and the nature of that person's experiences.

A. True B. False

Attention Problems and Motivation

6. A central concept in understanding learning and attention problems is motivation, and as a means to address deficiencies in intrinsic motivation, remedial activities have been directed at improving each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Awareness of personal motives and true capabilities B. Learning to set valued and appropriate goals C. Learning to make appropriate and satisfying choices and to value and accept responsibility for choice D. Learning to express positive emotions and sustain satisfaction

The Broad Continuum of Attention Problems- Developmental Variations

7. As children are developing, impulsivity and activity are expressed as variables of personality and must be judged in the context of caregiver/adult experiences and tolerance levels.

A. True B. False

Disorders That Meet the Criteria of a Mental Disorder

8. In order to meet the criteria of a disorder, ADHD symptoms need to be present to a significantly greater degree than is appropriate for the age and cognitive ability of the child, and the symptoms should:

A. Be present in more than one setting B. Persist for more than three months C. Present before the age of 10 years D. All of the above

Arguments About Whether ADHD Overdiagnosis is a Significant Problem

9. Overdiagnosis concerns have been compounded by related increases in use of medications to treat ADHD, and some suggest that practitioners frequently diagnose with limited assessment, diagnostic criteria are pathologically biased, and conflicting interests between diagnosticians and pharmaceutical companies may influence diagnostic decisions.

A. True B. False

The Association of ADHD with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence

10. According to studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia, which of the following is NOT one of the indicators of social and economic disadvantage that is associated with ADHD?

A. Low income/poverty B. Younger motherhood/maternal education C. Lone parenthood D. Poor health care/resources

11. Students with ADD/ADHD are impacted within and outside of the classroom, and they pay the price for their problems with low grades, scolding and punishment, teasing from peers, and low self-esteem.

A. True B. False

Classroom Accommodations for Students with ADD / ADHD

12. Which of the following are recommendations for effectively delivering information to the ADD/ADHD child EXCEPT:

A. Give instructions one at a time and repeat as necessary B. Use visuals such as charts, pictures, and color coding C. If possible, don’t work on the most difficult material early in the day, as time is needed to ease into demanding tasks D. Create outlines for note-taking that organize the information as you deliver it

ADD / ADHD and School: Tips for Managing Symptoms-Impulsivity

13. Methods for managing impulsivity include behavior plans, immediate discipline for infractions, and ways to give children with ADD/ADHD:

A. A sense of control over their day B. A greater opportunity to take breaks as needed and increase movement C. A chance to redirect their own activity D. A creative outlet to manage symptoms

Helping the Student with ADHD in the Classroom-Strategies for Teachers-Novelty

14. While presenting novel, interesting, and highly motivating material will improve attention for children with ADHD, overstimulation created through color, shape, and texture may encourage increased activity level, enhance attention-seeking behaviors, and impede overall performance.

A. True B. False

Powerful External Reinforcement

15. Factors to consider when using external reinforcement include:

A. Contingencies or consequences used with ADHD individuals must be delivered more immediately and frequently than is typically the case B. Students with ADHD need external criteria for success and need a pay-off for increased performance, as relying on intangible rewards is not enough C. While the use of both negative and positive consequences is essential when working with ADHD students, before negative consequences can be implemented, appropriate and rich incentives should first be developed to reinforce desired behavior D. All of the above

Treatments and Medication

16. In additional to behavioral approaches, research evidence for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD indicates that social skills training is most effective.

A. True B. False

Medications

17. While ADHD medications help control symptoms for as long as they are taken and can help a child pay attention and complete schoolwork, it is not clear whether they help children learn or improve their academic skills.

A. True B. False

Psychotherapy

18. Behavioral therapy aims to help a child change his or her behavior by providing practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events, while also teaching young people to:

A. Empower themselves to choose positive thoughts and behaviors B. Monitor, praise, and reward their own behavior for acting in a desired way C. Create a step by step process to achieve goals D. Recognize the connection between emotions, ideas, and behaviors

Follow-up Treatment Research

19. According to a recent Cognitive Science journal article analyzing multimodal and longitudinal outcomes for ADHD, although initial reports emphasized the superiority of well-monitored medication for symptomatic improvement, reanalyses and reappraisals have highlighted each of the following EXCEPT:

A. The superiority of behavioral treatment for composite outcomes and for domains of functional impairment B. The importance of considering moderator and mediator processes underlying differential patterns of outcome, including comorbid subgroups and improvements in family discipline style during the intervention period C. The emergence of side effects in youth treated with long-term medication D. The diminution of medication's initial superiority once the randomly assigned treatment phase turned into naturalistic follow-up

Questions Parents Ask and Some Concerns about ADHD

20. One strategy frequently discussed to help children with ADHD is to ensure that communications are delivered in ways that are clear, specific, concrete, and developmentally appropriate.

A. True B. False

Concerns to Think About

21. Research indicates that children who are the youngest in their class are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than the oldest in the class, even when these children are similar demographically, which may be due to the relative immaturity of younger children as contrasted with their older classmates.

A. True B. False

Over-diagnosis

22. Experts contend that unique metabolic and hormonal functioning contributes to boys being diagnosed at much greater rates with ADHD than girls.

A. True B. False

Fidgety Students

23. According to the authors, siblings of children with ADD/ADHD face challenges, including difficulty getting their needs met, being rebuked more sharply when they err, experiencing feelings of jealousy and resentment toward their siblings, and:

A. Feeling anxious and stressed in the home B. Tendency to exhibit behaviors similar to those of the ADHD child, although out of character C. Feeling guilty over resentment toward the sibling with ADHD D. Having their successes be less celebrated or taken for granted

ADD/ADHD Parenting Tip 4

24. The most important benefits of physical activity for children with ADHD are increased concentration and improvement in overall calm and well-being.

A. True B. False

Keeping Attention Problems in Broad Perspective

25. Comprehensive, multifaceted, and integrated programs and services are needed to combat attention problems as well as more serious issues facing our youth, and schools need evolving programs to enable learning, provide support for transitions experienced by students and their families, increase home involvement, respond to and prevent crises, offer special assistance as needed, and expand community involvement.

A. True B. False


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