Mindful Continuing Education

Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence, Impact, and Treatment

Domestic Violence and Mental Health-Introduction

1. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is associated with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse in the general population, and studies that have investigated the association between severity of exposure to IPV with mental and physical health problems reported positive associations.

A. True B. False

Methods

2. Each of the following is an accurate statement about the Psychological Advocacy Towards Healing (PATH) baseline questionnaire EXCEPT:

A. It contains validated measures of mental health and exposure to abuse from an intimate partner, a member of the woman’s family, or another adult B. It includes questions on socioeconomic variables including age, parity, and employment status, substance use and general health variables, and measures of childhood exposure to abuse and maltreatment C. The PATH assesses previous experience with IPV interventions and resources D. A researcher for the current study was present in the room when the women filled in the questionnaire to provide assistance if requested

Results

3. In a study that collected baseline data from 260 women receiving domestic violence and abuse (DVA) services, almost 70% of the women reported severe abuse, and abuse episodes were relatively recent and had been sustained over time for the majority of women.

A. True B. Fasle

4. Study results showed positive associations between exposure to abuse and psychological distress and negative associations between quality of life and:

A. Overall welfare of the family B. Self-worth and self-confidence C. Social and communication skills D. Health state utility

Discussion

5. Of all of the women surveyed, half had been exposed to IPV for up to 2 years and approximately half had experienced mental health issues in the past.

A. True B. False

6. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about IPV and PTSD?

A. More than three-quarters of the women reported symptoms of PTSD at the time they filled in the questionnaire B. This finding is consistent with Howard and colleagues’ systematic review of epidemiological studies that reported while depression is the highest, PTSD is the second highest reported mental health condition among women exposed to IPV C. This is an important finding for clinicians, particularly generalists, who often miss the symptoms of PTSD in the context of domestic violence D. Given the ubiquity and severity of PTSD resulting from IPV, health services need to develop and implement specific IPV trauma interventions for survivors

Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review-Background

7. In the treatment of aggressive behavior, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions are now a commonly used approach to help different populations manage their aggressive behavior as well as to:

A. Regulate anger B. Gain emotional knowledge C. Problem-solve D. Establish self-control

8. Research on the effectiveness of CBT to address dysfunctional and violent behavior among intimate partners has yielded statistically significant positive results.

A. True B. False

Table 1-Characteristics of Randomized Controlled Trials Examining the Effect of Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy

9. In a 2017 U.S. study examining the effect of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on male perpetrators of IPV by Murphy et. al., CBGT produced equivalent or greater benefits than individual CBT and partner reports revealed more favorable outcomes for group treatment on measures of physical and psychological violence.

A. True B. False

Primary Outcome: Effect on Violent Behavior

10. In addition to indicating a positive protective effect of CBGT on self-reported violence related to intimate partners as compared to the waitlist control, one study found a significant correlation between continued physically violent behavior and:

A. Substance misuse B. Psychological aggression C. Low age D. PTSD

Discussion

11. Which of the following is an accurate statement about overall findings from the six studies?

A. Five of the included studies found a reduction in physical violence among participants in the group-based interventions B. The larger study by Alexander et al. included 528 male participants and found only marginal differences in self-reported violence with respect to the type of treatment C. Most of the study findings related to a reduction in violence were based in reports from the victims of IPV D. Study findings that relied on police reports were the most accurate in reporting IPV

12. Self-reported outcomes like physical health, mental health, quality of life, emotional regulation and substance use are scarcely addressed when investigating the effectiveness of CBT for anger and aggressive behavior, so further research is needed to address these outcomes.

A. True B. False

Couple Therapy for Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis-Abstract

13. Despite its documented impact on health, there is no widely recognized treatment of choice for IPV, and while some studies indicate that couples suffering from situational violence may benefit from couples therapy, professionals are cautious to risk the possibility of violent retaliation between partners.

A. True B. False

14. According to the authors, there is a serious unmet need in the treatment of IPV, as indicated by each of the following EXCEPT:

A. Many programs neglect the subset of victims/ perpetrators who wish to remain together B. Many programs designed to prevent intimate partner violence solely target male offenders by providing gender-specific group therapy or individual treatments, while domestic violence shelters and other facilities traditionally support only female victims by offering therapy, support groups and educational programs C. Findings on batterer intervention programs indicate that these programs do not work as well as expected, with programs often experiencing high dropout rates D. Negative consequences such as an increase in resistance, defensiveness, and vulnerability have been attributed to some batterer intervention programs

15. The key to effectively treating couple violence lies in accurately classifying the underlying issues the couple is facing in order to facilitate the prescription of specifically tailored therapies.

A. True B. False

Descriptive Analysis of Included Studies

16. The Creating Healthy Relationships Program (CHRP), which is a couple and relationship education program designed to reduce IPV in low income situationally violent couples, has shown positive results in reducing IPV and is associated with higher rates of:

A. Healthy socialization B. Emotional stability C. Attitudes that reflect healthy relationship skills D. Dyadic adjustment

Discussion

17. Gender specific treatments that emphasize the idea that the male perpetrator is psychologically driven to violent, oppressive, dominant behavior, and therefore must be isolated from the victim are not conducive to treating couples who wish to remain together, so research into couple therapy as an approved method of treatment for situational couple violence is critical.

A. True B. Fasle

18. Certain issues associated with situational couple violence are more effectively addressed with both partners present, so that the couple can support one another through the process and can:

A. Envision a life together B. Grow stronger attachment bonds C. Engage in reflection and inquiry D. Work together as a unit

Future Research

19. Data from the meta-analysis clearly indicates that the moderate effect of couple therapy in reducing male perpetrated situational relationship violence against females that was demonstrated can be extended to other instances of couple violence.

A. True B. False

Conclusions

20. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about situational couple violence?

A. It refers to mutual mild violence among partners B. This type of violence often results from specific stressors or life events as a means to resolve conflict C. Situational violence is also referred to as characterological violence D. Partner domination or severe physical abuse do not occur with situational couple violence


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